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Sudden Behavioral Changes. Psychological or Physiological?
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UlysMom
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 Posted: Wed Mar 20th, 2013 09:14 pm
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My current gelding is coming on 8 and I have had him for about 7 months now. Prior to two weeks ago, he had been proving himself to be a solid, level headed mount. Excellent ground manners, solid tie, pliable and willing, one of the best trail horses I have had the pleasure of working with. In fact, he was so reliable that I had felt very comfortable using him to teach my young nieces about caring for, leading, riding (well, lead line), etc. Always carefully supervised by two adults, of course.

Flash back to two weeks ago. I was giving him a bath in the cross ties, had never cleaned his sheath, as in the time I have had him, it hadn't been an issue. He wasn't to keen on it and raised his leg a couple times while I was up in there. My friend happened to be there so she held his tail to keep him from actually kicking, I finished his bath, put him up. No issues. The next day, I tie him up at the tie rack and start grooming him. He pops a warning kick at me when I brush the inside of his leg near his sheath (never had done that before the day prior), when I went to immediately pop him in the side for making contact with me, he set back hard when I made a move in his direction, broke his halter and ran to the other side of the barn. I calmly collected him, tied him back up and resumed grooming. He set back again, broke the halter and I repeated the collection and resumption. He was absolutely fine on my trail ride after that.

Next day, he started setting back immediately. Now, in my head I was telling myself, Once they learn they can set back and get away, they will continue to test it. So that was the approach I was taking with him. No nonsense, no fretting and making a big deal over it, etc. Now he gets flinchy when I work near his back hip (where I was when he kicked at me), tense avoidance, rushing away from me, so did patient ground work showing him there's no reason for the anxiety, he's safe, etc. Progresses to him flinching and pulling away when I drop his front hoof and stand up. He gets tense when he's being handled now. Now he is flinchy when you move quickly near his face. He even is showing these behaviors to not only other people, but to other horses that he previously got along fabulously with. He doesn't want to socialize with them or have them touching him. He will stand near the back of the turn out facing his stall.

That last part has me concerned that this could be something beyond normal testing behaviors to see what he can get away with and avoid. He legitimately seems frightened, tense and uncomfortable, whereas before he was a very easygoing guy. Nothing phased him.

He is fed Orchard in the AM and Alfalfa in the PM. He is boarded at a private residence in SoCal. No grains or supplements currently. He is in a 24 x 40 stall with semi-regular turnout alone or with known horses, if not being worked.

My first thought was maybe he was bored and not getting enough work, as he is a youngster still (my last boy I had for 20 years and lost at 30).We had our rainy season which had limited our trail accessibility for awhile, so, weather permitting, he was mostly getting turned out, lunged or ridden in the arena (which he is not a fan of). Admittedly, with the weather, there were days he was in his stall and we didn't have the ability to go anywhere or do anything. So, I began doing a lot more work with him in the arena, bending, flexibility work as it is an area I need to work on with him. This increase in work came on a couple weeks before the kicking incident.

The first two months I owned him, I had kept him at my previous barn where he had daily turn out with up to three other horses, all day, brought in at night. Moved him to the new barn (he moved with 4 other horses that were part of his established herd group at the previous barn). We've been here since the end of October with no issues at all here until two weeks ago.

I have a vet appointment scheduled for next week just to rule out any medical reason that could be causing this sudden, dramatic change in his behavior.

From what I have relayed, what am I doing wrong, what am I doing right? I'm kind of lost here trying to figure out which direction I should be going with this, as the resolution is really dependent on the root cause of the behavior. I really want to do right by him without further damaging either his confidence, our trust (if that's it), or stopping his BS if it's testing behavior, or getting him appropriate medical care if it stems from that. If it wasn't for his changed behavior with the other horses, I really would just assume I'm dealing with him either being legitimately fearful or being a brat.

Any suggestions? thanks so much

DrDeb
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 Posted: Thu Mar 21st, 2013 08:24 am
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Dear UlysMom: It is astonishing, isn't it, how fast horses do learn. And you've been a very effective teacher here.

The solution to your problems (and they are in fact YOUR problems, and not the horse's problems) will lie in your ability to see what you did to teach the horse to pull back, flinch, not trust your movements around him, and not feel confident generally; and once you see that process, or where the roots of that process lie, then to work backwards -- like peeling layers off an onion -- to where the horse can be again, and your relationship with him can be again, somewhat like it was to begin with.

To get your thinking started, I am going to suggest that you get completely away from using cross-ties. Cross-ties are never a very good or a very safe set-up; in fact, they are among the very most dangerous pieces of equipment found on most farms. So you are not going to put the horse in cross-ties anymore. You will find that you never needed them anyway; they do not speed the grooming process or the bathing process up at all -- that is, you won't lose any time over grooming and bathing once you learn the right ways to "do" groundwork.

Along with giving up cross-ties goes a fact that you need to learn: there is a "psychological-emotional" definition of a horse. In other words, a horse has a certain set of characteristics in terms of his mental and emotional life, which set the horse apart from people and from other kinds of animals. Here is the definition:

A horse is the kind of animal that survives by making adjustments.

This is the biggest of all reasons, then, why not to use cross-ties: because they almost completely deprive the horse from being able to make any adjustment. He cannot move right; he cannot move left; he cannot swing his head around to bite a fly that is irritating him; essentially, he is trapped. Cross-ties tend to be great places, however, to teach horses to kick and strike and bite, because these are actions that the horse can actually perform while cross-tied.

Therefore, if you want to teach your horse that he does not have to kick, bite, or strike, you take him out of the cross-ties and instead, you put him in a halter (no chain on it of course), and you lead him out into the center of a riding arena or the indoor hall or a smallish paddock or a biggish outdoor pipe-pen. You bring your little basket of grooming tools with you -- my kit includes exactly three items: a stiff brush or metal scraper; a softer brush; and a hoof pick. Your kit might also include a suitable comb and a soft towel or washcloth or damp sponge, depending if he needs his eyes wiped and/or his mane or tail combed a bit.

The general idea with whatever grooming kit is that the implements you use on the horse's body feel good to him. Unless you are a teenaged girl who is in that touchy-feely phase that compels them to comb and braid every mane they see, then the object of "grooming" is really never grooming. To ride a horse, you only need him to be "sufficiently" clean -- perfectly clean anywhere the tack is going to touch him, and then just "clean enough" so that he is comfortable everywhere else. I am telling you this so that you will not approach him, touch him, or use any grooming implement on him with the same attitude and "feel" that you would use if you were, say, cleaning the seats in your car or brushing off a dusty old couch. You will not do that, please. You would instead get into the moment with it, so that you touch the horse and you groom him with the same kind of consideration that the lady at the beauty parlor uses when she washes your hair.

Now I'm telling you to be doing this "grooming" -- which is really bonding, but also a very sophisticated form of training -- out in the middle of the enclosure. You are to have the horse in a halter and you have the lead-rope draped over your arm, so that there is a good amount of belly in the line. And if at any time the horse needs or desires to move -- you are to permit him to do that. He can walk away from you or reposition himself freely, as far as the length of the lead-line. When he starts moving away (if he does), then you just pause in brushing him, let him finish until he stands still on his own, then softly walk up to him again and begin brushing once more.

You will find that there are indeed certain parts of his body that are more ticklish or more sensitive, such as his flanks or the insides of the hind legs or the area around the sheath. The horse has a RIGHT to this but you have previously been denying him that right by not only depriving him of the ability to adjust, but by actually coercing him more firmly (having your friend lift the tail) and/or punishing him by hitting him. Let me ask you: if you are married -- when your hubby says "honey, that thing that you're doing is making me uncomfortable" -- do you up and "pop him one"? Or what did you think the meaning of your horse lifting up his leg was?

If you have kids, and your child says "mommy, being in the elevator scares me" -- do you up and "pop him one"? Or what did you think the meaning of your horse pulling back was?

You talk about ground-schooling, but I think you must have learned from a wannabee, one of the false gurus of whom we frequently complain here: because your attitude is not the correct one, and it is the attitude, not the exercises themselves, that are of primary importance. Let me repeat: your horse does not need to change his attitude, but YOU do. If you want your horse to be your trusted companion, if you want him to be on your team, then you need to start acting like a real leader rather than a petty-minded drill sergeant who is there to scan for infractions and then punish them. You are your horse's teacher -- that's what he needs in the artificial world of the ranch or stable in which he lives. You are NOT your horse's boss, as one good kick from him will teach you.

So you groom him "loose" in the halter and you let him express himself and you pay attention to what he is saying.

In a few days, you will be able to dispense with the halter and lead rope. From then on, you are to groom, bridle, and saddle the horse with the animal entirely at liberty within the enclosure. If at any point he walks away, then you wait for him to stop and then you walk over to him and pet him; and then continue with whatever it was you were doing, i.e. either brushing him or picking his feet or flopping the saddleblanket up there, or putting the saddle on, or girthing the saddle, or bridling him. You will find, if you do as I am suggesting here, that within one week you will have your horse completely groomed, saddled, and bridled in much less time than it used to take you in the cross-ties.

The same goes for unsaddling at the end of the ride. You ride back to the enclosure, get off in the enclosure (or outside of it, if you can't open and close a gate from horseback yet, so if this is the case then you open the gate and lead the horse in); then you take the tack off, beginning with the bridle, then the girth, then the saddle, finally the saddle blanket, and hang them one by one on the rail. The horse will then be entirely at liberty in the enclosure, and what you do is you either go get your brushes and brush the sweat off or do it with your fingertips. This is the time in my own ride when we enjoy some practice at doing what are called "tricks": but you can't do that yet, as at the moment you don't know how. However, doing the things I am suggesting sets you up to succeed at those things also, as well as with everything else you want to do under saddle, since your success with your horse totally depends upon your relationship with your horse, and his beliefs and thoughts about you.

Now you may find that, when (and if) the horse walks away from you that you have some difficulty getting back up to him again, because as you approach he'll turn and walk away. This is called "fleeing slowly" -- horses do it when they are really not very confident of the person, and not very fond of the person. There are, of course, certain methods which I would be happy to teach you, whereby you could learn to call the horse to you: in such manner that it would be the horse's greatest pleasure to come to you. But this cannot happen until the attitude adjustment of which I spoke above has occurred within you.

As to pulling back when tied "straight" and not in the cross-ties -- don't be thinking that's any different. The horse pulls back for one reason, and that is that he is trying his best to adjust. The key to success here is to teach him that you will ALWAYS provide him room to adjust. As the horse learns this, the amount of room he needs to make enough adjustment to get himself all right again will get less and less, until it is less than the length of the rope that's tying him to the tie. But again -- you will not be able to understand this until you've spent a month grooming and tacking your horse at liberty.

Please feel free to write back again with any questions, and let us know how it goes with you after a month. -- Dr. Deb

 

 

 

 

Karla D.
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 Posted: Fri Mar 22nd, 2013 06:07 am
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Dr. Deb:
When you talk about the horse fleeing slowly by walking away and that the handler should let him walk away ..... would the handler keep the slack in the rope and just walk with the horse until he stops or would the handler guide the horse into a circle and let him walk until he stops?

DrDeb
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 Posted: Fri Mar 22nd, 2013 07:50 am
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Karla, obviously it would depend upon whether the horse was on the line at all. If he is on the line, then he has liberty to walk until he comes to the end of the line. If he is at liberty, then he can walk as far as the edge of the pen.

The point is, you let him choose as much as possible within whatever limitations were part of the set-up.

I have deliberately not mentioned any technique to UlysMom related to getting the horse to look at her and come; she will need to ask for that, and I hope she does so, but AFTER she has tried simply grooming at liberty. The first thing that needs to change there is not adding some technique or other, but changing UlysMom's own attitude, and liberty-grooming is a great aid to provoking that. -- Dr. Deb

Betty Ann Lester
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 Posted: Fri Mar 22nd, 2013 02:10 pm
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I am 80 years old with a lifelong experience professionally with many horses.
This problem is simple. It started with cleaning the
sheath after not ever having done it before.
YOU LOST HIS TRUST!!
I believe if you knew the history of his gelding you would find it was traumatic.
As most animals and humans know, an original fear and pain will arise. Fight or flight from known and experienced pain. You need to regain trust.
Discipline for all the other behavior will only make it worse.
Betty A. Lester

DrDeb
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 Posted: Fri Mar 22nd, 2013 06:42 pm
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Yes, Betty; and the process which I describe above for grooming at liberty is one of the best ways to regain the horse's trust: by giving him a CHOICE as to whether, how long, and for how much brushing and touching he wants from the human.

You notice I also do not mention to UlysMom that she should clean the sheath. So long as the male horse can urinate comfortably, there is no need whatsoever to clean the sheath.

Eventually, cleaning the sheath can be taught to the gelding just the same as urinating on command can be taught. Under those circumstances, it becomes a pleasure to the horse and something he looks forward to.

But UlysMom will not be able to access any of these things until she first does as I have suggested, which is the beginning of the change in her attitude that must occur. -- Dr. Deb

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 Posted: Sat Mar 23rd, 2013 07:43 am
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Hello Dr Deb,
On a similar subject, I have come across quite a few geldings that have had what I have only heard of referred to as 'beans', ie hard collections of smegma that get trapped inside the foreskin and, I believe, can be extremely uncomfortable if not painful for them.

My attention was brought to these some years ago when the dental technician pointed one out when a horse was having his teeth done under sedation and he dropped his penis.

I never clean my geldings' sheathes, but I do check them for beans periodically when they let down. What are your thoughts on these?

Dorothy

DrDeb
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 Posted: Sat Mar 23rd, 2013 02:51 pm
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Dorothy, unless the bean is very large, the gelding or stallion will pop it out from under the foreskin on his own. If you notice a horse not urinating, urinating painfully, having trouble dropping his penis, or peeing from within the sheath, then you should be concerned enough to call the vet and see if there is a bean big enough that the horse needs assistance getting rid of it.

When a horse retains urine because he's reluctant to pee, he also reduces the amount he drinks or stops drinking altogether. This of course sets him up for colic, and that's why we train the dentists to take care of beans. Might as well since the horse is sedated anyway.

Many ignorant people are mixed up as to why the sheath "needs" to be cleaned, because they think the sheath is the horse's foreskin, and that cleaning the sheath is doing for the horse what an uncircumcised man must do for personal hygeine (and to prevent beans). There is waxy smegma inside the sheath also, but every time the horse extrudes his penis this material is normally pushed out. Excessive (i.e. daily or even weekly) sheath-cleaning has a good chance of actually making the horse sore and irritated, which was part of UlysMom's original problem no doubt.

Older horses, Cushing's horses, and horses with something amiss with their salt/electrolyte balance will show an edematous (swollen) sheath. They are the most likely to have trouble dropping the penis and/or to have a dirty sheath (dirty, precisely because they're not dropping with normal frequency and to the normal length). Edema in the sheath is good reason to take a closer look at the horse's feed and supplement regimen. -- Dr. Deb

ruth
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 Posted: Sun Mar 24th, 2013 10:14 am
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Dear Dr Deb, could you please elaborate on the problem of elctrolyte/salt balance as a possible reason for a swollen sheath; I was previously led to believe it was probably another area for fat deposits on an overweight horse. I did have an old horse who developed a cancerous penis, and was instructed by the vet to clean it regularly, he cut the cancerous area off (which bled copiously), but it healed though was regularly flakey with smegma and I did used to think maybe it was my fault the malignancy occurred because I hadnt cleaned his sheath out regularly. But would be grateful for more infomation on electrolyte/salt balancing. With thanks.
Ruth

DrDeb
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 Posted: Tue Mar 26th, 2013 10:31 pm
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Ooh, goodness, Ruth -- there could be no possible connection between you not cleaning the sheath and the horse's penis becoming cancerous. That first.

As to salt balance and swollen sheath, use the Google advanced search function (be sure to dub our forum address in to the "limit search to" box) to search for Pauline Moore's threads relating to magnesium chloride, crestiness, founder-prone. The sheath, like the crest, has a lot of fibro-fatty tissue, so that the same factors that make the crest get fuller (i.e. prior to a founder episode or as a warning that a founder episode is likely), will also affect the sheath. The swelling in the sheath tends to be less firm than that of the crest, because the fibro-fatty packing of the sheath is less dense, but it's the same phenomenon. -- Dr. Deb

ruth
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 Posted: Wed Mar 27th, 2013 09:03 am
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Thanks Dr Deb, for the comment about cause of cancerous penis, cancer is such an emotional subject one always looks for the reason 'why', and I knew really there wasn't a connection, but I was so fond of the old boy, and asked myself was it some neglect on my part.
Also thanks for the reference to Pauline's input, yes, I have studied this, it was just your mention of electrolyte/salt imbalance that puzzled me, but yes, it's back to the magnesium imbalance and founder connection. Despite my extensive education in the arts, my science knowledge is woefully lacking. Am always grateful for your information.

Ride A Grey Horse
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 Posted: Mon Jul 11th, 2016 11:58 pm
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Dr. Deb wrote:

<<As to pulling back when tied "straight" and not in the cross-ties -- don't be thinking that's any different. The horse pulls back for one reason, and that is that he is trying his best to adjust. The key to success here is to teach him that you will ALWAYS provide him room to adjust. As the horse learns this, the amount of room he needs to make enough adjustment to get himself all right again will get less and less, until it is less than the length of the rope that's tying him to the tie. But again -- you will not be able to understand this until you've spent a month grooming and tacking your horse at liberty.>>

Dr. Deb, tying is something I've wondered about, and since I just came across this thread - can you please teach a bit more about how to teach a horse to tie?
(I do groom and tack at liberty, which Greyhorse likes, and I understand that this is the important message to the original questioner.)
When you say "The key to success here is to teach him that you will ALWAYS provide him room to adjust" - how, when tying?
I've got him used to standing peacefully at the fence with the leadrope just lying across it, so he can move away if he needs to. But this ain't real tying and I can't picture the next step, I guess because I'm not sure of the end goal! Is the idea to ultimately tie with a slip knot or a breakaway halter, in case the horse ever needs to leave?
Or ... ?
I don't know of any upcoming need to tie, would just like to get this working in case it's ever needed.
With thanks in advance,
Cynthia

DrDeb
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 Posted: Tue Jul 12th, 2016 03:13 am
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The worst thing that you could possibly do-- and one very often sees silly-minded but well-meaning people buy into this -- is to tie the horse with anything whatsoever that will break or stretch. They do this because they think it's kind, and because, like you, they can't imagine how to get the job done right. Or else, they're too lazy or uncommitted to take the time.

You've done right so far -- grooming at liberty greatly reduces the horse's need to leave, as you must have noticed by actually doing it. How often in the beginning did the horse zoom out of there, the moment he realized he was free? Then what happened was that he fairly quickly quit doing that. Grooming feels good, so long as the groomer is not approaching the task as if she were beating the dust out of a horsehair couch. Horses don't have fingers and they love having their itchy spots scratched. So when they realize it's their choice and their pleasure, they'll stand there until they're tired of it or until you fall asleep mentally and go on and on in one spot until  it does not feel good. But even then, instead of zooming away, they just walk away a few steps and say to you, "that's enough for the time being."

You're also doing right by draping the line over a fence rail without tying it. This is the first step in teaching to tie. If the horse steps back or pulls loose, you just catch him and put him back again. You're teaching him "this is where I want you to stand."

But notice it still isn't "standing". I'm sure you've seen the barn bucklebunnies with their Quarter Horses -- i.e. teenagers and young twentysomethings with their horses tied or cross-tied, and they're banging on them with brushes and yanking their feet up to be cleaned or pulling their manes or tails, all the while they're on their cellphones, and if the horse so much as twitches they scream at it to "stand still" or "quit that". And what they receive as a reward for their efforts is a horse that retreats into itself and performs like a robot.

So this isn't our goal. Our goal is to educate the horse so that he knows he always has the ability to adjust, even when tied. Your problem is that you're not realizing what "adjustment" means -- you think it has to mean "leaving", whereas what it will come to mean is "moving the feet but not the body." Remember how the horse felt less and less need to leave when being groomed at liberty? The same also applies when he's tied.

One begins, then, by thorough schooling on the short rein with the flag, in the normal position with the rope in your left hand and the flag in your right, on the left side of the horse; then the opposite on the right side, teaching the horse to untrack freely in either direction, and teaching him to do this promptly and calmly and with full acceptance that the flag is not there to hurt him, only to tell him to move his feet.

Then one finds a sturdy fence and climbs up and sits on the top rail, while holding the long lead rope in one hand. Make double certain at all times that the rope does not wrap around any part of your body. Then you drop the flag down on the left side of the horse and you get him to untrack from left to right, so that his head is still pointing at you while his butt end steps around to the right until his body is parallel to the fence. You let him rest there a while and then you do the same by dropping the flag down in there between the fence and his ribs, so that you get him to untrack from right to left, his nose pointing at you all the time, until he's stepped around a full arc so that his body is now parallel to the fence with the fence on his left side.

If the horse pulls back, meter your response and make a judgement. If it's possible to hold him by playing out the rope with friction, and do that without burning your hand or hurting yourself, and get him stopped before you run out of rope, that would be ideal. You then can remain on the fence and then by little steps you can get him to come back up close again.

If on the other hand he pulls back pretty hard, just drop the rope and let him go. Climb down, catch him, and go back to flagwork from the ground for a referesher. Then try climbing up again and begin again from there.

If you have someone who can assist you, it will also be helpful to go through a phase where the assistant holds the rope from outside the enclosure, while you flag the horse directly from the rear or three-quarters from the rear, getting him to step all the way over to his right and then go through the arc by stepping all the way over to his left. This has the advantage of telling the horse, "step up toward the fence; YOU put slack in the line; feel how good it feels not to have pressure on the halter." Of course, he should have figured this out years ago when first taught to lead -- it is THE HORSE'S JOB to put slack in the line and keep it there.

And you repeat the fence work, in both forms, five or six times every day you do it, and you do it every day for a month, until it's absolutely totally learned.

Then you can go to the next step, which is to find a sturdy post and wrap the lead rope around the post. These posts used to be found on every Mexican and southwestern/California ranch; they're called 'snubbing posts'. You can also see them in 17th century Antoine de la Baume Pluvinel's work and in 18th century Duke of Newcastle. So you bring the horse up to the post, you take one single wrap around the post, and you then flag the horse, having him untrack all the way around in a circle. Then rest and go the other way.

Gradually you take more wraps. In the beginning, if the horse pulls back, you just use the wraps like you would a dally, to slow it down so he doesn't hurt himself. But day by day his realization that HE CAN ALWAYS MOVE HIS FEET gets more solid, like a life habit. Because that's what you're teaching him -- when pressure comes, move your FEET -- TO THE SIDE NOT BACKWARD.

Finally, you can take three wraps and throw the tail over; this is the sort of tie your farrier probably uses -- it doesn't have a knot but it will hold anything but a very hard pull. And when he is so tied, then you flag him around.

At this point, the horse will be safe to tie to an ordinary tie-rack. When the Canada Geese land on the roof of our barn like a thundering herd of elephants, and my gelding can't figure out where that awful sound is coming from; when the handyman is crawling around on the shedroof and suddenly his head and arms pop through the clerestory and a bunch of hay slides down the tinroof and lands in the stall aisle directly behind my horse; when other horses nearby outside or in the arena bolt from some loud noise -- when any of these happens, my Oliver does a very fancy piaffe in place -- he moves his feet plenty -- BUT HE DOES NOT TAKE THE SLACK OUT OF THE ROPE.

I'm sure you can teach this to your horse, too. -- Dr. Deb

 

Ride A Grey Horse
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 Posted: Tue Jul 12th, 2016 10:19 pm
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Many thanks Dr. Deb!   This is what I need to know and sure couldn't reason out.
Reading your reply, the first thing I came to that I don't have working is in the very beginning:  on the leadline with the flag, when I ask him to untrack, you say he's to respond promptly.
The truth is my horse responds at his leisure.  When I up the pressure a little and say "You know what? Move your feet" (Buck's language), the horse does so; but then the next time I "offer the good deal first," the horse will take his time again.  This for sure isn't what you mean by responding promptly and willingly.
There's nothing wrong with my horse, he's a great horse - he doesn't hand anyone anything on a platter but why should he.  I think it's about me staying fully conscious, which is stupidly hard for me.  So I'm renewing my intent.  This keeps being necessary over and over, which is humbling but I guess that's my deal.  Also I'm asking a friend two towns over, who is a real good horsewoman, to come watch and help me get the untracking so it's quality.
As so often with answers you give, Dr. Deb, this one is packed with many things, and sends one back to the beginning.
So, to begin.  Then I look forward to moving on with the rest of the how-to you very graciously gave. 
Thank you very much.
~ Cynthia

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 Posted: Sun Jul 17th, 2016 10:23 pm
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Dr. Deb, I meant to say I take your point that the horse "adjusting" doesn't just mean snort- whistle-fart-outta-here.
Thank you.
This is going great. As my friend couldn't come help right away I had to just do it. I especially appreciate your instruction to pause when he gets his left quarters fully over to the fence, before I drop the flag in there to ask him to untrack to his right. In that pause I'm telling him "You did it - See? you can do this."
Yeah and he says "You're back, all there, focusing - See? you can do this."
Many thanks for your invaluable guidance.
Cynthia


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