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Jineen's Thread -- Now it's about the feet
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Jineen Walker
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 Posted: Sun Jul 29th, 2012 06:24 pm
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Trey, right foot profile

Attachment: 4634 rite.jpg (Downloaded 705 times)

Jineen Walker
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 Posted: Sun Jul 29th, 2012 06:30 pm
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Trey right hoof rear view

Attachment: rear 4637.jpg (Downloaded 697 times)

Last edited on Sun Jul 29th, 2012 06:34 pm by Jineen Walker

Jineen Walker
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 Posted: Sun Jul 29th, 2012 06:40 pm
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Trey left hoof.

Attachment: 4638 left.jpg (Downloaded 692 times)

DrDeb
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 Posted: Sun Jul 29th, 2012 11:52 pm
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OK, now, Jineen, I am going to ask you to interpret these XRays yourself. There is nothing mysterious about doing that: you just look at them and you tell me what, if anything, about them strikes you as being odd or abnormal.

What you have reported that your veterinarian said cannot possibly be ALL that he said, because your report leaves out the one most obvious and by far the most serious thing that is wrong with your horse's forefeet.

So, what is this thing, Jineen? Because before you can ever hope to be able to select -- or properly supervise -- a farrier, you are going to have to be able to be competent and confident in making this assessment concerning the trim your horse receives.

Now, others of you who are reading this thread -- Adam Till, for example, or Yvonne Miller -- who are competent amateurs or else professional farriers -- all of you, please completely refrain from replying to these postings by Jineen until she herself has the opportunity to reply. This is the very best way for JINEEN to learn the requisite minimum skills.

And just as a comment -- those of you who do know what you are seeing here -- you understand that Jineen has kept horses for thirty years or better, and yet in all that time she has not gained even a minimum understanding of proper hoof trim. You understand that Jineen does love her horses and tries to care for them properly. What this is really about then, is not Jineen but the generally abysmal state of education of the common horse owner. And this despite the wonderful intentions and good work of Equus magazine, which was founded for the very purpose of teaching people the basics of what they need to know in order to keep a horse in working order. IT IS BECAUSE OF THE IGNORANCE OF THE CONSUMER WHO IS INCAPABLE OF DEMANDING PROPER WORK that we hardly ever see a normal hoof in the domestic horse population, and THIS IS THE MAIN REASON WHY we see so many chronically lame horses whose useful lives are much shorter than they should be.

So tell us what you see, Jineen. -- Dr. Deb

Jineen Walker
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 Posted: Wed Aug 1st, 2012 07:28 pm
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Well,

The angled coffin bone wasn't the surprise.

I knew I had purchased this club footed horse six years ago, and had an x-ray taken at that time to prove the club foot and send the horse back to the owner-but his personality and temperament got the better of me, so I kept him. They destroyed the x-ray, and told me that they had gelded both my horse and his sire as they believed club foot was hereditary, and they were a big breeding farm.

The first thing I noticed when I looked at the profile x-ray of the right foot, was that the bones are not as straight as I believe they should be. Meaning that the long pastern isn't sitting as deep into the center of the short pastern, nor is the short pastern sitting in the deep center of the coffin bone they are sitting to the front.

There fore, there would be a sliding into place as the horse breaks over when moving.

The other thing that bothers me is the lack of thickness at the sole, especially under the toe of the coffin bone.

The right hoof seems to be the reverse of that. Pastern bones not sitting in the deepest part of the socket either, but towards the back. Thin sole as well.

The rear facing view of the right hoof was a surprise.
There is bone growth and fragments off each side, and a left/right difference in balance in the coffin bone. Vet said sidebone. And although the vet moved when taking the x-rays and there is a bit of a double exposure, she also pointed out some feathering in places and said arthritis, ring bone.
Just looked up the causes, and of course you knew, in-balance and tendon strain.

She also said that nothing on the x-rays showed any cause of the lameness she found during flexion test, so that the lameness is due to soft tissue injury and that she recommended Bute, nerve blocking to diagnose the lameness,3-6 months rest, oral joint supplements and possibly Adequan.

I believe what I see is enough to cause soft tissue pain now, with no need to do nerve blocks.  One week later, an he is still a bit lame on Bute when I flexed him, but I started to cut back the dose yesterday. Not sure where to really go from here on his care. I remember you recommend the IM over oral, but I am not sure when that would be needed. Yes he is showing arthritis, but is he just tendon sore that will get better due to proper balance now?

I at least I realized there was a problem, many thanks to this forum, and went about trying to do something about it. Cody Ovnicek discussed with me that the professionals, or horse owners, believe that what they see all the time as normal. One of which in New England with soft ground, is that long toes and under-run heels is normal, and un-fixable. And unless they continue their education, will continue to work this way.



Thank you. Jineen






Last edited on Wed Aug 1st, 2012 07:37 pm by Jineen Walker

DrDeb
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 Posted: Wed Aug 1st, 2012 08:11 pm
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OK, Jineen, from what you're telling me here, you are making your vet sound seriously incompetent, because (again from what you report), the conversation you had entirely missed the MOST important cause for this horse being lame. And no, it is not that he is so-called "club footed" (there is actually no such thing, but that's another discussion).

So let me approach guiding you through this in another way. You asked previously about the horse having a persistent crack in its toe. What factor, highly evident in the XRays you have posted here, predicts that a toe-crack would appear, or in other words is the fundamental cause of the toe-crack?

Here's a hint: what exactly do you mean by "there is a left-right difference in the foot"? -- Dr. Deb

Jineen Walker
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 Posted: Wed Aug 1st, 2012 10:55 pm
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Yes, I understand about club foot.

And no, I have repeated exactly what the vet and I discussed, adding-she said joints themselves were clean of arthritis.

I will add though, as I forgot, that this is the second x-ray from the rear of this hoof.
The first one showed unequal joint spacing, smaller in degree to the left, more open to the right. The vet wanted to say that was the problem, but I had her retake the x-ray as I asked the horse to weight his right leg. So the second x-ray, as you see it, shows more equal spacing through the joints as he was standing more equal on both feet.Was that a mistake on my part? (I did this because he leans ect.-I have read Woody, but I don't blame him for not wanting to weight a painful foot)

From the x-ray, the imbalance I see is in the rear view, if I drop a plumb line down the cannon, it doesn't equally bisect the coffin bone area. It also shows not equal distance to the ground, but hard for me to pinpoint the left side as it is rounded.
There is more heel to the left, less to the right, which would be indicative of the lean through his body. He built more mass under where his weight is distributed.-That is a guess on my part.

The main surprise I remember when I first saw this x-ray, is that of the bottom of the cannon to the long pastern, isn't parallel to the ground. And I will honestly say, I don't know if it should be. I've got to find comparison pictures, but I think it looks clean and balanced through the spacing. The navicular bone area isn't clear enough for me to distinguish, and is unfamiliar to me so far.

Toe crack-
The long toe acts as a lever to pull the laminae away from the coffin bone. As the hoof grows, without any outside force against it to wear or break it off, it cracks between the pressure of the hoof and the ground.
It was the long, dished toe that I asked the vet and farrier about, which was why I had the x-rays taken-to tell me for sure that the coffin bone was different from the outside wall. That the toe not only had to come back, but that somehow, the heel had to be balanced as well.

But the main cause of lameness, is the laminae in the toe? And if that is the case, with the horse being lame 1 week after trimming, which I am sure relieved some of the pressure during break over, he needs more toe back? Both the farrier and Cody said to take it easy, but maybe the horse says different.

Jineen

DrDeb
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 Posted: Thu Aug 2nd, 2012 04:49 am
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You see, folks, what muddlement can occur in the mind of a horse owner as the result of reading everything and listening to everybody, without fully understanding anything that is read or said. This is one of the main things that I am warning people about when I tell you, "you cannot take a little from one place and a little from another place, and quilt that together, and make of your horsemanship a patchwork quilt." It must all be of one cloth; woven in one piece, without seams. And of course this is only possible when the threads themselves are of good quality -- in other words, when there is a good basis there.

What I am saying, again, Jineen, is that you are utterly missing the obvious. You are missing the forest for the trees.

What is the NAME of the problem that you can see in the rear view of the right forefoot? It would have been just as obvious in the living animal as in the XRay; you can go out to your barn right now, this minute, and see it in the particular horse. That is -- you can if you have eyes to see it. This is the 'thread' of good quality, to have the eyes to see -- to have what people call 'plain common sense'.

So, again, Jineen, here is the same question put a different way, in hopes that you can get some benefit from it:

(1) What is the NAME of the problem when one of a horse's heels is markedly higher than the other?

(2) What might this problem have to do with a persistent toe-crack? For a toe crack has nothing whatsoever to do with some kind of separation of the laminae; your muddlement on this makes me fear, Jineen, that you have heard the term 'laminae' quite a few times without, again, having the least idea of what it means. A toe crack is VERTICAL, it splits the toe of the hoof capsule -- it divides the tubules -- from the coronet band vertically down to the ground.

(3) Once you have named the problem with the heels -- in other words, once you have ACTUALLY SEEN it -- then you also need to look at the XRay to see what effect this has on the coffin bone. What is the orientation of the undersurface or ground-facing surface of the coffin bone, relative to the horizontal (i.e. relative to the ground)?

(4) What might this orientation of the coffin bone have to do with your horse being chronically lame?

I hope that this exchange benefits some of the other people who may be reading it. How many of you have EVER been guilty of "faking" that you understood something that your veterinarian said -- how many of you have been guilty of nodding your head solemnly "yes, yes" when in fact, you SHOULD have put your hand up and asked "what in the blazes are you talking about"?!

It is a fatal habit, folks -- honestly. And particularly troublesome to me, and I am sure to most veterinarians or medical doctors, who are in the business out of a desire to HELP people. -- Dr. Deb

 

 

Jineen Walker
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 Posted: Thu Aug 2nd, 2012 07:58 pm
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It is called sheered heels.

Yes, I did see the side bone area difference left to right.  However, I didn't know that it had anything to do with any other issue not related to his club foot distortion.

The toe crack developed, not because of the hoofs lack of ability to break off at the toe, but because of unequal flexing of the hoof from left to right, creating torque which the toe gave way under pressure and split. No, I didn't know that one. But from a mechanical point of view, it is clear.

The coffin bone will be tipped down, toward the lower heel, not parallel with the ground, left to right.

Pain is caused by the lower heel receiving all of the concussion as the hoof bears weight. The concussion and weight isn't distributed evenly throughout the hoof and leg, causing jamming of that side and the resultant pain.

So now as I understand it,  this horse leans not only because of the way in which he chooses to, but also because his right foot is tipped, and causing him to lean on his left foot, and couldn't comfortably try to correct his body carriage because his hoof angles will be fighting this.

I had taken pictures, before and after trim, but not from the back of the heels. So therefore, I have to go and eyeball it now to make sure the new farrier is on the right track. She has a copy of the x-rays, and videoed her work. So that should be a good guide.

And NO, the vet never talked about sheared heels. None of them.

For the last 20 years the farriers and vets have been telling me toe cracks are due to long toes. How many years has the plumb line down the hind leg been the model of excellence? Do you know that is still being taught today?

I have many times considered the source of my meager, and poor education, and unfortunately sided with some those who I thought more competent than myself. I, for sure, have not put the time in that they or you have.

The people who I have hired, who have gone through years of schooling should know what you are teaching. Then they would have taught me. They taught me what they knew.

 I wasn't the one who didn't raise her hand in class. I was the one who got yelled at and told on many occasions that I was wrong, just do it because they said so.

I may not know what I am doing either, but I do know, at least some of the time, that something is wrong, and don't follow any fad off the cliff with the rest of them. That is why I am patch worked, and proud of it.
You don't think that is a good education. I call the school of hard knocks. It is scattered for sure, and not thorough, slow and sucks when you are wrong. But what I have learned and taken to heart is that strong thread. And that is why I am here. To fill in the holes.



Jineen Walker
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 Posted: Fri Aug 3rd, 2012 01:46 am
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Dr. Deb,

Here is the comment from the farrier after she trimmed. She didn't see the x-rays before trimming.

"I can see from the xrays that the angle in the right front is pretty bad both Distal/palmar and medial/lateral.. I did level the foot to the sole plane. "

What I have found out so far about sheered heels, is that you cannot level the foot to the sole plane, as the sole is also compressed on the same side, giving you a false guide. So now I move forward trying to balance this hoof.

So in this case, whether you can see the imbalance from the outside or not, the x-rays help a lot. But as you state, I must be able to see and guide the farrier and I understand that no one can know it all.


But I have also found that conformation plays a big part of the development of sheered heels, not just improper hoof balance.

I'll be studying more for a while now,
Jineen

Pauline Moore
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 Posted: Tue Aug 7th, 2012 02:46 am
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Hi Jineen

In answer to your query of 28th July about amounts of MgCl to feed, this is individual to every horse. My own three horses, all on the same diet and fulltime grazing, all need different daily amounts of magnesium. Some horses do well on just a teaspoon of MgCl per day, others need a whole cupful. To make it more palatable, you will probably need to dissolve the MgCl in water if it turns out that Trey needs larger amounts.

Slowly increase from the ½ tsp you started with, up to the point where you start to see a slight softening of Trey’s manure. Then reduce the daily MgCl to the previous amount so his manure returns to normal. This whole process may take a couple of months as increasing the MgCl too quickly can also cause scouring. You will then need to monitor Trey to determine what is needed as the seasons change from summer to winter. Generally, less magnesium is needed in winter when grass growth has slowed but there are some situations where more is needed for short periods. For instance, our winter here in Queensland this year has been unusually wet with long periods of overcast, drizzly weather following two years of good summer rain and rapid grass growth. These conditions are ideal for causing potassium to accumulate in pasture grasses, and high levels of potassium block magnesium absorption. Consequently, many of us in Queensland are currently having to feed magnesium at summer levels or even more.

Keep in mind that any feeds high in calcium, phytates or potassium are likely to reduce magnesium absorption significantly which makes it hard to get enough into the horse. Many horse owners who add in magnesium to their existing feeds find they do not see a real difference in their horses until those magnesium-blocking items are eliminated.

A similar problem occurs for horses drinking water with a naturally alkaline pH, as is common in many parts of Australia. If the alkalinity is due to high levels of calcium in the water it will be difficult to counter the calcium content with enough magnesium. Some lucky owners may have well or bore water that is alkaline from a high magnesium content so do not need to feed any supplemental magnesium.

As your water is testing around pH 6.0, it may be worthwhile adding some sodium bicarbonate to the water trough to bring the pH up to just over 7, but don’t go beyond 7.5. If that is not practical, you could add around 20g (1 tbsp) of bicarb to each feed.

It will be interesting to see what differences you observe in Trey over the coming months. I come across quite a few horses where distortions to the orientation of the pedal bone are visible only on radiograph, and are not visible in the external hoof capsule. This includes feet with a negative palmar angle to the bone that is hidden inside an upright, boxy hoof with normal collateral groove depth. I think of this as weak, stretched lamina causing the bone to be ‘loose’ inside the hoof capsule (like us if wearing a pair of shoes that are a size too big); the bone is then able to tip forwards, backwards or sideways depending on the individual horse’s accustomed manner of moving and/or leaning.

I’m hoping that Trey’s lamina connection will tighten over the coming months which should result in the bone being sited higher up inside the hoof capsule, taking pressure off those very thin soles, and allowing for growth of a thicker, stronger sole. Your farrier may then find that maintaining medio-lateral balance is much easier if Trey is more willing to weight his feet evenly (providing the sidebone is not still actively causing him pain).

Best wishes
Pauline

MtnHorse
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 Posted: Wed Aug 8th, 2012 07:09 pm
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The two quotes by Dr Deb that motivate this post:

What is the NAME of the problem that you can see in the rear view of the right forefoot? It would have been just as obvious in the living animal as in the XRay; you can go out to your barn right now, this minute, and see it in the particular horse. That is -- you can if you have eyes to see it. This is the 'thread' of good quality, to have the eyes to see -- to have what people call 'plain common sense'.

I hope that this exchange benefits some of the other people who may be reading it. How many of you have EVER been guilty of "faking" that you understood something that your veterinarian said -- how many of you have been guilty of nodding your head solemnly "yes, yes" when in fact, you SHOULD have put your hand up and asked "what in the blazes are you talking about"?!

 

 

So I will first admit, I do not see the problem in the rear view of the right front foot.  The rest of this post is about what I do see and it might be germane.

 

When I compare the right and left feet I see that the right heel is significantly higher than the left.  This places the coffin bone and digital cushion on the right foot at a pretty steep angle, so that as weight traveled toward the ground it would be concentrated at the toe of the foot.  As to be expected the sole of that foot looks to be about 30% thinner over the point of the coffin bone. 

Also the hoof wall of the right foot looks to have poorer attachment to the coffin bone. As evidenced by the wider angle at the bottom that the top.  Since the hoof wall appear to have been left long and pointed that places more pressure on the already weak attachment.

When I look at the back view of the right, I see a lack of symmetry in the internal structures.  If the horse has had a “club foot” or difference between the right and left foot for a long period of time, I would not expect to blame it on a recent imbalanced trim.  I do see an imbalance in the length of the heels at the time of the x-ray.  However, if I understand the discussion, these x-rays were not taken immediately after a trim.  When I walked out and looked at some of my own horses at about 4 weeks from their last trim I see about an equal amount of variation between the two sides of the same heel as I see in this x-ray.  My horses are sound on mountain trails. 

I have been taught that balancing the heels is one of the challenges of trimming.  You can use the sole plane, the view of the foot from behind which can be effected by the hair line, and the measure of the difference between the collateral groove and the heel as measured by putting an object like a hoof pick in there.  Since there is the possibility for both art and science in determining heel height, if I had an asymmetrically built horse to start with, I would not be at all surprised to see the amount of variation I see in these heels.

I have put off writing this as I am in a sense disagreeing with the teacher but then I decided to take you, Dr Deb at your word, put [my] hand up and ask "what in the blazes are you talking about"?!

DarlingLil
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 Posted: Wed Aug 8th, 2012 07:54 pm
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I'm curious who told you Jineen that the hoof wall should not be made level with the sole? Isn't the uneveness a sign of an incorrect trim and a cause of sheared heel resulting in sidebone and toe cracks Dr Deb? My horses feet look level after their trims.

DrDeb
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 Posted: Thu Aug 9th, 2012 05:51 am
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Dear Folks -- I've been hankering to reply to this but unable to because of having been out of town for a horsemanship clinic. Finally I have a little time to reply.

I appreciate the honesty not only from Jineen but some of the rest of you, in telling me that you don't see what the problem is -- other than the so-called "club" foot.

Really, folks? Well -- as I said to Jineen, I gues it isn't your fault; you have to live in the ocean you swim in, and the ocean you swim in simply does not include much information as to WHY  a proper hoof trim is proper or fitting to the individual horse -- or not. In other words: there is little or no information on basic orthopedic principles.

So, in this post I have attached a markup of Jineen's posterior-view XRay. People, it is absolutely, categorically impossible for any horse to remain sound if the coffin bone, coffin joint, and other distal limb joints are not level.

In the next post, you'll see I have attached a sketch of a hoof-capsule (and its contents, treated as if the tissues within were just a block of wood, or a block of substance of uniform nature. The reality is much more complex, of course, but this simple drawing will be plenty sufficient to get the concept across). What happens when they have a sheared heel? Sheared (not "sheered") heels is a great term, produces exactly the right mental image: the heels are shearing, with the same sense of motion as the blades of a scissor. You see that this tears the entire contents of the hoof capsule apart along the axial plane of the capsule. You also easily see how tearing apart in this manner induces the formation of a "toe crack", which is the separation of the tubules at or near the center of the toe, along a vertical line. Such toe-cracks are not minor, obviously! They tend to go all the way from the coronet band down to the ground; are persistent; are difficult to stabilize; tend to ooze or bleed. Many times a farrier or veterinarian will try to stabilize such a crack by stapling or lacing the two halves of the horny part of the capsule together, but such an approach is unlikely to succeed because it addresses the symptom only, which is to say, it addresses the toe crack only. The cure must lie with stabilizing the entire distal limb, and that requires getting the heels level.

Of course the sheared heel is the exception to Mike Sovaldi's generally reliable system of trimming by the sole plane, because by the time the heels have gotten this unequal, the sole, which is stretchy, will have distorted. The farrier must then turn to his training in orthopedics (but you'll be very lucky to find any farrier, or even any veterinarian, who has any meaningful training in orthopedics). So, the owner will go in quest of a veterinarian who is an orthopedics specialist, and follow their recommendations, whatsoever they may be. Undoubtedly this specialist will employ a farrier with a good toolbox of skills, but you understand that the farrier will in this case perform as ordered by the veterinarian, because it will be the orthopedic surgeon, who really does have training in the principles of orthopedics, who conceptualizes the presenting problem correctly and who also envisions the treatment plan, which means in this case, a plan of treatment that will need to be pursued for at least one, and probably two, years.

It is undoubtedly obvious to all of you at this point also, why this horse has sidebone. The sidebone may regress and disappear as the sheared heels re-normalize.

Now I think it is also necessary to ask why this animal developed sheared heels in the first place. It will have taken at least two, and in all probability more like ten, years for the feet to get into this condition. This means that for at least two, but perhaps for as long as ten years, the farrier has consistently been mis-trimming this horse.

Now I know of no farrier (or at least none who has a viable and ongoing business) who knowingly mis-trims any horse. To do so would be to put himself or herself right out of business.

Therefore we need to ask again, how it could occur that a farrier -- without CONSCIOUSLY meaning to -- could perform over a course of time the very reverse of what this, or any, horse needs; could in fact perform just what would be needed to gradually bring on a severe case of sheared heels. And the answer to this is that the farrier has consistently, over the long course of time, been trying to "give this horse some help".

Very likely the owner knew about this, and even, likely enough, has been asking him to do it.

And the "help" that has been given is predicated on the totally erroneous -- but common -- belief that a horse's front toes ought to orient straight forward, so that the axial plane or plane of assessment that bisects each forelimb shall be parallel to the midline or sagittal plane of the body. I would mention that I believe that this is not only a common belief, it is oftentimes almost an obsession with both owners and farriers.

And, looking at the direction of the shear (i.e. which heel is higher), we may easily deduce that this horse was being given "help" (the help is actually a death sentence as you see), because its right forelimb wants to orient outwards. So, the farrier has for years been lowering one heel while permitting the other one to rise -- in other words the farrier has purposely been mediolaterally unbalancing the hoof -- in order to crank those toes around so that they point forward.

Now no one who knows any equine anatomy -- let alone any orthopedics -- could possibly conscience doing this. Because anyone who has studied the peculiar and unique beauties of equine anatomy would know that a horse cannot supinate the manus; in other words, that if the animal "toes out", and its knees can be seen also to orient outwards, it must necessarily mean that its elbows orient inward. If the person knew even the most basic facts about equine anatomy -- and surely the certificate farrier should -- then they would know that any attempt to get the fore hoofs to orient in any wise other than the plane which bisects the knee, will inevitably result in twisting, unlevelling, and strain to every joint of the forelimb with every step the horse takes.

As to the animal's so-called "club" foot -- there is not, nor has there ever been, any such thing in a rideable horse. Horses are not born with club feet, which means the malformation and/or co-fusion of one or more of the normally separate distal elements, for example as with a "frozen" coffin joint. Where this does occur -- and it is extremely rare -- the foal is euthanatized and we do not see him in the riding horse population.

Therefore all of the steep feet with contracted heels -- properly they are called "encastellated" feet -- are not club feet but clubbed feet. And they arise because the foal has been leaning, and is being taught to lean, even in the first month of life; probably largely by virtue of the fact that his dam will only let him nurse on the one side. So that, over the time from birth to about two months of age, one of the foal's feet begins to contract, and contracts enough that the owner will finally notice it.

And this is also why the animal toes out more on one limb than the other; whichever way the animal leans, i.e. he will lean toward the side on which he prefers to bear weight, the forefoot of the other side will become encastellated, and that foot will also toe outward more or less markedly, while the preferred weightbearing foot toes out only a little or toes straight forward. And this will perpetuate itself, sometimes to quite a marked degree, unless the human steps in to break the cycle. And that is done by soon teaching the foal to carry itself straight, and this program of human intervention is carried right on through weaning and first backing and first ride and all the training, until the horse dies. A horse is straight when it no longer matters to the horse whether he bears weight upon the left pair of limbs, or upon the right pair; and when it no longer matters, you will find that his feet are within normal limits equal, and his toes point to where they are supposed to given the build of his chest and his ability to carry himself upon the hindquarter; and there is no more "club foot" apparent.

Likewise you will also find that he no longer toes out more on one forefoot than the other, and you no longer have any motivation or reason (or un-reason) to ask any farrier to give the horse "help" that is the kind of help that is likely to help him die sooner.

Please, if you have not done so, go read "Lessons from Woody", wherein the principles, as well as the process, of straightening is set forth. -- Dr. Deb

 

Attachment: Forum Sheared Heel XRay Marked.jpg (Downloaded 473 times)

DrDeb
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 Posted: Thu Aug 9th, 2012 05:53 am
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Here's the "block diagram" showing what weightbearing on unlevel heels does to the tissues held within the horny hoof capsule.

Attachment: Forum Sheared Heel Internal Effects Drawing.jpg (Downloaded 472 times)


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